Lysosomes as Protectors of the Body
Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelle is found in most of the eukaryotic cell and are different from other cytoplasmic organelles is due to their morphology. These are isolated and separated components for the first time by a scientist named De Duve in 1949. They are surrounded by a single membrane and simple sacs that contain a very large variety of food digesting enzymes called hydrolases. Any foreign objects gain entry within the cell are immediately ingulfed by the lysosome and are completely broken down into digestible pieces this process is known as phagocytosis. They are very abundant in those animal cells which exhibit phagocytotic activity for example neutrophils.
Lysosomes are bounded by a single membrane and contain numerous hydrolytic and acid phosphatase enzyme. Enzymes are synthesized on rough endoplasmic reticulum and are further processed in the Golgi apparatus enzymes which are processed in the Golgi apparatus are budded off and are called primary lysosome. These contain those enzyme which digest the food particles during autophagy some old parts of the cell are digested in this way materials of the cell may be recycled and sell may be renewed there. Enzymes can also result in degeneration of the cell as may occur during the developmental process.
The lysosome can also be disturbed therefore they cannot perform their function normally. Several congenital diseases have been found to be due to the accumulation of substances such as glycogen for various lipids within the cell. There are also called storage diseases and are produced by a mutation that affects one of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the catabolic sum of certain substances. For example, the disease is known as glycogenosis type II disease the liver and muscle appear to be filled with glycogen within the membrane-bound organelle is in this disease. An enzyme that converts glycogen to glucose is absent similarly to another disease which is called Tay Sach’s disease is involved in the catabolism of lipids. Accumulation of lipids in the brain cell leads to mental retardation and even death.
Lysosomes perform to other most important function within the cell which mainly include phagocytosis and pinocytosis in figure cytosis the lysosome in the gulf the foreign body which entered into the body by several mechanisms. The body which crossed the first second and third line of defence eventually come under lysosome which got destroyed and in the process known as pinocytosis it is the drinking of the cell by the activity of lysosome in which the liquid part of the cell is digested. So these two are the main process performed by the lysosome for the normal activity of the cell.
So in this way the lysosome performs the most important activity of the cell by different in the cell from different foreign particles and foreign objects, which are harmful for the body. So in this why lysosome is regarded as the security system of the body because and all cells who are responsible for immunity contain lysosome as I have earlier mentioned neutrophils which perform the phagocytic activity contain lysosomes.