Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
Biologists have studied cell into two types, the prokaryotic cell and the eukaryotic cell the difference between these two types of cells are mainly based on the structure of their nuclei. eukaryotic cell very well defined nucleus will define cytoplasm which includes all the cytoplasmic organelles in their defined shape nuclear material is enclosed in the double nuclear membrane. It also contains DNA and chromosomes while in the prokaryotic cell the genetic material and the chromatin network are without any nuclear membrane and it is directly submerged into the cytoplasm. The ribosomes are not present on endoplasmic reticulum but they are dispersed in the cytoplasm prokaryotes include bacteria and blue-green algae which are also known cyanobacteria. While eukaryotes include all other unicellular or multicellular organisms such as protests amoeba paramecium and euglena and animals and plants are also included in the eukaryotic organism.
Detailed studies show that prokaryotic cells generally lack many of the membrane-bounded structures which are present in the eukaryotic cells. For example mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum chloroplast plastids Golgi complex all these cytoplasmic organelles are absent in prokaryotes since there is no nuclear membrane appropriate Excel has no distinct nucleus and its DNA molecule is directly suspended into the cytoplasm prokaryotes have small size ribosomes in prokaryotes mitosis is missing the cell usually divide by the process known as binary fission.
Because of the simple structure of prokaryotes it was widely accepted for a long time that prokaryotic cell represent a more primitive stage of the evolution then the eukaryotes the most distinctive features of the prokaryotic cell is it cell wall composed of polysaccharide chain bounded covalently to a shorter chain of amino acid forming peptidoglycan structure which is also known as murein.
The total cell wall is often regarded as a single huge molecule (molecular complex card Maureen). The cell wall of plants eukaryote is generally made up of cellulose and it is differently structure than that of bacteria in prokaryotes bacteria is mentioned earlier than prokaryotes these are the smallest cellular organisms and are the most abundant in the universe. Bacteria along with blue-green algae are included in kingdom prokaryote are the only living prokaryotic organisms the cell wall of bacteria has peptidoglycan structure which is a rigid structure and determines the shape of the bacterium it also protects the cell from the osmotic lysis bacterial cell and like The other cells of eukaryotic organisms lacks discreet chromosome and nuclear membrane.
The nuclear material DNA in the bacterial cells occupies a position near to the center of the cell. This material is a single circular and double-stranded DNA molecule bacteria only have ribosomes composed of RNA and proteins there are thousands of ribosomes in each healthy growing cell bacteria. Undergo binary fission and some time multiple fission. Sometimes bacteria can also undergo conjugation which is a type of sexual reproduction. Bacteria have many different types of uses which include fermentation which is mainly used to produce different types of dairy products which is mainly used by humans and it is very beneficial for health.